U.S. EPA Industrial Consent Decrees: Sector Impacts, Trends, and Penalties
The EPA has issued 112 consent decrees since 1999 to industrial companies violating the Clean Water Act, resulting in approximately US$6.5 billion in civil penalties and US$2.7 billion in compliance costs. Under the current Trump administration, consent decrees issued to industrial companies in violation of the Clean Water Act, have steadily been declining.
Consent decree issuances are concentrated in states (e.g. Texas, Pennsylvania, Iowa) with large water-intensive industrial sectors, including energy, mining, and food and beverage.
In this Data Insight, Bluefield water experts analyze the following:
- Overview of Consent Decrees by State and Sector
- Industrial Consent Decrees, Compliance Costs and Civil Penalties by Sector
- Civil Penalties and Costs of Compliance per Sector
- Geographic Distribution of Consent Decrees