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U.S. EPA Combined Sewer Compliance: Judicial Consent Decree Trends and Planned Investment


Municipal sewer systems are facing increasing enforcement action and Clean Water Act violations by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce discharges of raw sewage and stormwater runoff.  Through the National Enforcement Initiative, the EPA lists 29 civil judicial consent decrees to address combined sewer systems and sanitary sewer systems.

At year end, the EPA estimates as much as US$28.9 billion of infrastructure investment will be needed to mitigate stormwater overflows. Negotiated compliance timelines stretch from 2016 to 2037 across 11 states and 29 utilities. In this Data Insight, Bluefield water experts analyze these consent decrees, evaluating the impact on utilities, affected states, and infrastructure investment.

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