Lead Service Lines and Water Infrastructure: Sizing the Market and Drivers for Rehabilitation

17 Dec 2019
Available with corporate subscription

Water utilities are responsible for the quality of drinking water at the tap, but the ownership of service lines, which can include lead, is shared, or at least represents the interface, between the municipalities and homeowners. Ownership and responsibility have proven to be a significant obstacle for municipalities attempting to eliminate lead pipes and contamination from water distribution systems.

The count of lead service lines (LSL) across the U.S. is not well known. According to a study that used data from two American Water Works Association (AWWA) surveys, an estimated 6.1 million LSLs remain in the U.S.

In this report Bluefield analyzes:

  • Size of the lead service line problem in the U.S.
  • Lead service line replacement market value by state
  • Lead and Copper Rule action level exceedances and violations
  • Policies and funding for replacement
  • Communities addressing lead service lines

Report Features

Table of Contents

  1. Lead Service Lines in the U.S. : Background & Takeaways
  2. Size of the Lead Service Line Problem in the U.S.
    • Sizing the LSL Problem by Source
  3. Size of the Lead Service Line Problem by State
    • Estimate of Existing Lead Service Lines by Region
  4. LSL Replacement Market Value by State
  5. Lead and Copper Rule Action Level Exceedances
    • Five Year Lead Action Level Exceedances : Top 20 States
  6. Lead and Copper Rule Violations
    • Systems Currently in Violation of Lead & Copper Rule by Population Served : Top 20 States
  7. Federal Policies and Funding Addressing Lead Pipes
  8. Proposed Challenges to the Lead and Copper Rule
    • Key Proposed Changes to the Lead & Copper Rule by Rule Segment
  9. States Lead Service Line Replacement
    • State Commitment to LSL Replacement
  10. State Policies to Address Lead Service Lines
    • States that Have Adopted Policies that Allow Rates to Include LSL Replacement
  11. State Lead Service Line Inventory Programs
    • Survey Characteristics by State
  12. State Funding for Lead Service Line Replacement
    • State Programs that Fund LSL Replacement
  13. Community Efforts to Replace Lead Service Lines
    • Completed Replacements
    • Replacement Goals
    • Initiated Replacements
  14. Appendix : Lead & Copper Rule Violations by Community Water System
    • Community Water Systems in Violation of Lead & Copper Rule (in Past 5 years)
  15. Appendix : Lead Action Level Exceedance by Community Water System
    • Community Water Systems with Lead AL Exceedance (in Past 5 Years)
  16. Appendix: Communities Addressing Lead Service Lines
    • Communities Addressing LSL


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